Basil is an annual plant that grows in many countries around the world. Its leaves can be of different colors, which include light, dark green, and purple. The stem reaches an average length of 60 cm. The root is branching, located close to the surface.
The leaves, like the stem, are covered with hairs. The flowers are white, pale pink. Fruits are dark, similar to nuts, ripen in a group of 4 pieces, and remain viable for five years. Interestingly, the taste of different types of basil is also different. This plant needs sunlight, but it must be controlled.
- Fragrant or camphor
The plant has many branches and leaves and can reach 55-70 cm. The aroma is soft, reminiscent of pepper. The most popular varieties are Magic of the East, Fragrant Handsome, among others.
It grows up to 50 cm, and it has bright purple leaves. Also, it has a stronger aroma than green varieties. Their unique smell and taste distinguish such varieties.
It has lilac flowers and shiny bright green leaves and grows up to 45-60 cm. The aroma resembles cinnamon but has hints of mint. It leaves an interesting burning aftertaste. The most valuable varieties are wonderful and cinnamon.
On the leaves of some varieties of this type of basil, slight pubescence is observed. The color is light green, and the height is between 35 and 45 cm. The aroma is delicate, not as intense as that of its purple counterpart. Popular varieties are favorite, green cornflower, and explosion.
It got its name from its unusual coloring, where the leaves and stems can be dark brown or purple. It grows depending on the variety, which is up to 30-65 cm. A strong peppery aroma and a slightly spicy aftertaste add spice to various dishes. Typically, it is stored in dried form for a very long time. The well-known varieties are Osmin and Baku.
This species has pale green leaves and smells like lemon with hints of camphor. It grows only up to 35 cm. Most of all gardeners prefer varieties are Iskra, lemon, and Novinka.
How Much Sun Does Basil Need?
Basil is a plant, which needs a warm and sunny area to grow, either outdoor or indoor. The plant should receive an average sun of 6 to 9 hours a day. However, like seedlings, basil should not be exposed to very much sunlight. They can experience discoloration if they are not protected from the sun.
Unlike seedlings, mature basil must be subjected to the sun and does not need shade. When mature basil receives less sunlight, it changes its color. If you live in a hot climate, it is recommended to protect it even during the hottest hours of the day.
What does The Germination of Basil Depend on?
For good growth, basil needs fertile and light soil. It is not recommended to plant this plant in heavy and constantly moist soil. It should consist of 2 parts of humus or compost, four parts of peat, and 1 part sand.
Do not grow basil in the same place for several years in a row. This can lead to plant diseases. After changing the place to the previous bed, these spicy greens can be planted no earlier than five years later.
- Boarding time
When the danger of night frosts has passed, somewhere in late May and early June, and the soil has warmed up to 20-25 ⁰С, the sprouts may appear as early as 5-7 days after sowing. In cool weather, basil seeds hatch very poorly and may only emerge after 2-3 weeks or not at all.
- Treatment before sowing
Basil seeds contain essential oils that make it harder for them to get moisture and increase their time to sprout. Therefore, to obtain earlier seedlings, it is necessary to pre-treat the grains.
First, the seeds must be warmed up at a temperature of + 40 ⁰С. Do this for 3 hours in the sun or a warm object such as a battery.
Next, soak the seeds and place the grains in a cloth or cheesecloth. Pour in warm water, 40 ⁰C, and put in a warm place for 1-2 days. The water must be changed every 12 hours.
Before planting, the hatched seeds can be soaked in a growth stimulator. Also, moisten the fabric and leave the seeds for an hour.
In warm regions, basil can be sown outdoors as early as early May and not at the beginning of June. To get greens at an earlier date, they can be grown in a greenhouse or through seedlings.
Seeds begin to germinate when the temperature rises above 15 °C. Therefore, in harsher climates, basil is best grown in seedlings.Soil moisture
Basil is a tropical plant and needs to maintain soil moisture. In hot weather, it must be watered daily in the morning and the evening, if necessary also during the day. Try to water only the soil under the plant, not on the leaves, and not overfill; otherwise, the plantings may rot.
Reasons Why Basil Does Not Rise in Any Way
- It is too early
Every gardener wants to see the sprouts as early as possible, but sometimes you have to be patient and wait. If three weeks have already passed and the grains have not hatched, it is better to sow the basil again.
- Old seeds
Basil seeds have a shelf life of 3-4 years. If you are not sure about the quality of the seeds, you can test them for germination by soaking them in warm water for 1-2 days.
- Improper care
For good germination of seeds, basil needs to be provided with warmth, bright sunlight, and moist soil. Too wet soil, as well as lack of watering, can ruin the plant.
- Heavy soil
Fragile basil sprouts may not make their way through too heavy and hard soil.
- Planting depth
If the seeds are buried too deep, they may not break through the thick soil.
Basil is a unique plant that grows in many parts of the world. By providing it with the necessary care, you will be rewarded with a good harvest. The main requirement for basil is the amount of sun it receives.
It requires an average sun of 6 to 9 hours. Please make sure no excess sunlight because it can cause discoloration. Also, provide it with conditions that are favorable to it.